How did Robert Oppenheimer’s relationship with the US Government evolve post-Manhattan Project?
J. Robert Oppenheimer, often nicknamed "the father of atomic bomb", was a central figure in the Manhattan Project which developed the first atomic bomb during World War II. However, in the years following the Manhattan Project, his relationship with the U.S. government evolved dramatically, with profound effects on his career and personal life. Immediately after the war, Oppenheimer's reputation was at its peak. He was appointed as chairman of the General Advisory Committee (GAC) to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The GAC advised the AEC on nuclear policy and the strategic control of atomic energy. However, Oppenheimer's stances on atomic energy policy began pricking governmental nerves. He first advocated for international control of atomic energy, but after that proposal faltered, he opposed the development of the hydrogen bomb. He argued it was militarily unnecessary, a powerfully destructive weapon beyond the scope of moral consideration. This stance put him in direct opposition to many government and military officials who were advocating for the development of a hydrogen bomb. His stance was seen as troubling at the height of the Cold War, and concerns about his loyalty resurfaced. During the Manhattan project, Oppenheimer had been under surveillance by the FBI due to his past affiliations with Communist organizations and his siblings' active roles in the Communist party. These concerns had been set aside due to the urgency of the Manhattan project but reemerged post-war. In December 1953, Oppenheimer's security clearance was suspended pending an investigation. The ensuing hearings in 1954 were a public spectacle, ending in his security clearance being permanently revoked. This effectively ended Oppenheimer's role in atomic energy policy and marked him as a public pariah. After the revocation of his security clearance, Oppenheimer was ostracized from political life but remained active in academic circles. He returned to his previous position at the Institute for Advanced Study, where he spent the remainder of his career. In 1963, toward the end of his life, he was somewhat vindicated when he was awarded the Enrico Fermi Award by the AEC, an award for achievement in the field of nuclear energy. By that time, many in the government had recognized the wisdom in some of Oppenheimer's cautionary positions on atomic weaponry. Overall, Oppenheimer's post-Manhattan Project relationship with the U.S. government can be seen as a tragic arc, from respected advisor to suspect, ending in late-life recognition. It serves as a cautionary tale about the interplay of science, politics and ethics in the sphere of national security.