How can I resolve merge conflicts in Git?
Sure! Merge conflicts occur when competing changes are made to the same line of code in a repository. Git needs human intervention to decide which code to keep and which to discard during the merging process. Let's first understand how to identify them. A conflict is designated in the following way: ``` <<<<<<>>>>>> your branch name ``` Now that we know what a merge conflict looks like, let's talk about the solution: 1. **Identify the conflict:** Git will mark the area in the file that has conflicts. For instance, a conflict might look like this: ``` <<<<<<>>>>>> your branch name ``` The HEAD (yours) version is saying `var x = 0;` while the other branch version is saying `var x = 1;`. 2. **Resolve the conflict:** You'll need to decide which version you want to keep. Let's say you want to keep `var x = 0;`. You'll need to edit the file to look like this: ``` var x = 0; ``` Remove the conflict markers and make the changes you want. 3. **Commit the changes:** After you've resolved the conflict, you'll need to add the changed file(s) to the staging area using `git add`: ``` git add filename ``` 4. Then, commit the changes with a message describing what was changed: ``` git commit -m "resolved merge conflict in filename" ``` While resolving merge conflicts, keep these points in your mind: - Always carefully review the conflicts and your resolution. It's easy to accidentally add bugs during this process. - Do talk with your team member who made the conflicting changes. They might have something in mind. There are also GUI solutions like VSCode, SourceTree etc. that can help you better visualize and manage merge conflicts, especially if there are a large number of conflicts. Moreover, you can also use `git diff` to see the conflicts against the base file, that can provide a more detailed view: ``` git diff --base filename git diff sourcebranch filename git diff targetbranch filename ``` Remember, the key to resolving merge conflicts is good communication with your team and understanding the purpose of the changes that caused the conflict. It's all part of the collaborative nature of coding!